Facts, data, analysis: more about trotting, reference list by EURET

"Greetings for the Holidays! The reference list is updated with a few interesting items, such as on the economy of the horse industry in the state of Indiana and in Hungary, also a useful article on horse transportation.”

Our Swedish friend Prof. Ulf Lindström really does a lot for the International Trotting Sport. Now he sent us a great list of important and continuative informations e.g. links which we proudly present:

European Research Network on Trotting, (EU/RET). 
– Racing, Breeding, Horse Industry.

The trot is a diagonal gait of the horse. The diagonal of EU/RET is a mark of cross-cutting research on trotting.

There are 70,000 trotting horses in Europe in the professional care of 100,000 humans. Racing alone (incl. thoroughbreds, excl. income and pay-roll taxes, VAT, etc.) generates €6bn in annual tax revenues. This network has the trotter at its heart, the mind on the sport. It is a network that puts research, on everything in between the gene and the world economy, at the service of the horse industry.

Inbreeding is bad for the racing performance of trotters: right? Hand feeding the mare apples in front of her weanling makes fillies and colts spoiled brats, right? Racing already at age 2 is harmful and cuts short the racing career of the trotter, right? Use of the whip is a growing problem in racing, right? Horseplayers are closing in on the big break by using computer programs, right? Ups and downs in the handle at the tote are foretelling the times, right?*

The trotting scene—with one major exception—is no different from other spectator events: the passion among the enthusiasts, the curiosity of the novice. The exception, of course, is that horses don't talk back to people, whether puzzled researchers, jubilant fans or upset punters.

EU/RET recognizes the enigma of the trotter, appreciates gifted horsemanship, the commitment of the aficionados—and takes nothing for truth until useful questions have been answered by cross-cutting analysis.

The First Roundtable of the EU/RET, hosted by Solvalla Racetrack, Stockholm 15-16 August, 2012 concluded that it is imperative that the sport addresses and acts on the core issues: breeding, ownership, recruitment of youth, in the interest of a healthy and robust trotting industry across Europe.

The EU/RET is a network open to everybody with the trotter in their hearts and their mind on the sport. To join, mail (no fees, no commercial links, no obligations). In return, expect continuously updated lists of references and links to interesting sources of data and analyses (cf., below). You are welcome to send notices on articles of research, even to flag your own contributions to the trotting industry. 

*Answers closer to wrong than right, further research pending.

(For items in other languages, see end of list.)

For the (very) long perspective…
Fik Meijer, Chariot Racing in the Roman Empire (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2010).

Introductory history of trotting, electronic & free: ""&HYPERLINK ""page=1

Digitized books, auction catalogues, etc., from the 19th century, on legends, by legends:;rgn=full%20text;pagHYPERLINK ";rgn=full%20text;page=simple"e=simple

Facsimile copies of early (1860 - ) magazine articles on American trotters.

The Guy Kendall Collection. Digitized images of trotters, from venues in Maine, U.S.;JSESSIONID=b2126a3f-f8f7-4c7a-b5d1-c92a46ea8fa5?q=FOLDERTITLE="Stock%20Farm%20--%20tracks"HYPERLINK ";JSESSIONID=b2126a3f-f8f7-4c7a-b5d1-c92a46ea8fa5?q=FOLDERTITLE=%22Stock%20Farm%20--%20tracks%22&sort=FOLDERTITLE,PHOTODATE,PHOTOID,BOXNUM"&HYPERLINK ";JSESSIONID=b2126a3f-f8f7-4c7a-b5d1-c92a46ea8fa5?q=FOLDERTITLE=%22Stock%20Farm%20--%20tracks%22&sort=FOLDERTITLE,PHOTODATE,PHOTOID,BOXNUM"sort=FOLDERTITLE,PHOTODATE,PHOTOID,BOXNUM"Stock%20Farm%20--%20horses%20--%20%233
Stanford's Palo Alto Stock Farm, photo archive to be enjoyed, incl Electioneer.

Early history of racing:
Horse Racing and Gambling in Virginia
Melvin L. Adelman, "The First Modern Sport in America: Harness Racing in New York City, 1825-1870," Journal of Sport History, Vol. 8, No. 1 (1981).
Paul E. Johnson, "Northern Horse: American Eclipse as a Representative New Yorker," Journal of the Early Republic, Vol 33, No 4, 2013, pp. 701-726.
Breakthrough of American t-bred racing and break between t-bred and harness racing, mid 19th century.

Early history of breeding:
Phillip Thurtle, "Harnessing Heredity in Gilded Age America," Journal of the History of Biology, Vol. 35: 2002, 43-78.
Ken McCarr, The Kentucky Harness Horse (Lexington, The UP of Kentucky, 1978).
Maryjean Wall, How Kentucky Became Southern. A Tale of Outlaws, Horse Thieves, Gamblers, and Breeders (Lexington: The UP of Kentucky, paperback, 2012).
Robert Bonner (1824-1899) of New York, legendary horseowner.
http:/HYPERLINK ""/
Denise M. Dowdall, From Cincinnati to the Colorado Ranger - the Horsemanship of Ulysses S. Grant (Dublin: Historyeye, 2012).
Indeed, President Grant too took his mares to sires by Rysdyk’s Hambletonian.

Girls and horses in fiction.

Contemporary breeding:
John Bradley, Modern Trotting Sire Lines (Neenah, WI: Russell Meerdink Company, 1997).
A.K. Thiruvenkadan, N. Kandasamy, S. Panneerselvam, "Inheritance of racing performance of trotter horses: An overview," Livestock Science 124 (2009) 163–181.
Suontama, Mari, “Genetic analysis of foal and studbook traits in selection for racing performance in trotters,”  doct diss., 2012.
https://helda.helsinHYPERLINK ""
M. Suontama, J. H. J. van der Werf, J. Juga, and M. Ojala, ”Genetic parameters for racing records in trotters using linear and generalized linear models,” J ANIM SCI, 2012 90:2921-2930.
Racing time and annual earnings, not breaking stride, show high genetic correlations.

Website for the fans of breeding and pedigrees:

Racing and Society:
C. McConville, A Global Racecourse. Work, Culture and Horse Sports. Australian Society for Sports History (ASSHStudies 23), 2009.
Academic anthology, mix of topics, also harness racing.
P McManus, G Albrecht, R Graham, The Global Horseracing Industry. Social, Economic, Environmental and Ethical Perspectives (London, Routledge, 2012).
Academic monography, thoroughbred racing.
Rebecca Cassidy (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Horseracing (Cambridge: CUP, 2013). Anthology, thoroughbred racing, enjoyable read.
Susan Nance, "Game Stallions and Other “Horseface Minstrelsies” of the American Turf," Theatre Journal, Vol 65, No 3, 2013, pp. 355-372
Racing as "invisible theater" in late 19th century America, harness racing too.

Sire statistics, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden:
Sire statistics, U.S.:
Sire statistics, France:
Sire statistics, Italy:
http://www.gaHYPERLINK "„
Sire statistics, Sweden:
Pedigree Databanks:

Economic Impact of Horse Industry:
State of Indiana racing
2014 State of the New Jersey Horse Racing Industry
– Europe
– France
M. Cressent and C. Jez, "The French horse industry at present,"Advances in Animal Biosciences (2013), 4:s2, pp 54–65– United States "“ustry
Terance J. Rephann, ”The Economic Impact of the Horse Industry in Virginia,” University of Virginia, 2011. "“se_study_final.pdf
2012 Kentucky Equine Survey, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, 2013.
– Canada "
– Baltic Region
"Current status of the equine sector in the Central Baltic Region" (report): ""EQUINE%20BASELINE_The%20Equine%20Sector%20in%20Finland%20Latvia%20and%20Sweden%202012.pdf
– New Zealand
Zsuzsanna Mihók, Economic analysis of the horse sector and relevant topics for its sustainable development in the Equestrian Revolution, dr-diss, Univ of Pannonia, 2016.

Horses and Humans:
Goodwin, D., McGreevy, P., Waran, N. & Mclean, A., "How equitation science can elucidate and refine horsemanship techniques," The Veterinary Journal, Vol. 181, 2009, 5-11.
Hausberger, M., Roche, H., Henry, S. & Visser, E.K., "A review of the human–horse relationship," Applied Animal Behavior Science, Vol. 109, 2008, 1-24.
Carole Fureixa, Marie Bourjadec, Séverine Henry, Carol Sankey, Martine Hausberger, “Exploring aggression regulation in managed groups of horses Equus caballus,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science 138, 216– 228, 2012.
Elke Hartmann, “Managing Horses in Groups to Improve Horse Welfare and Human Safety,” doct diss., 2010
Kate Fox, The Racing Tribe (London: Transaction Publishers, 2005).
Anthropology on British thoroughbred actives and crowd, relevant to trotting too.
K. Thompson and C. Nesci, "Over-riding concerns: Developing safe relations in the high-risk interspecies sport of eventing,"International Review for the Sociology of Sport, online 4 December 2013. Of general interest in risk and sports.

Horses and Academics:
National Association of Equine Affiliated Academics, worthwhile website to check regularly.
M. Steward & S. Bowers, Driving Horses: How to Harness, Align, and Hitch your Horse for Work or Play (Voyageur Press, 2014).
In the eye of the prospective horseowner:
"Confirming Conformation. Bloodstock expert offers tips on selecting quality performers." Hoof Beats, July 2002, pp. 65ff.
Carl Palumbo, A Guide to the Lexington and Harrisburg Yearling Sales (Plantsville, CT: Mane Street Publ, Pb, 2012.)
Travis Ng, Terence Tai-Leung Chong, Man-Tat Siu & Benjamin Everard, “What determines the price of a racing horse? Applied Economics, Vol 45: 3, 2013: 369-382.
Analysis of auction of thoroughbred yearlings; parameters familiar for trotters too.

Nutrition, feeding:
Auriane Hurtes, A survey on the feeding of competition horses
and perceptions of forage in the UK and Sweden.

Training and racing:
JC Tannera, CW Rogers & EC Firthab, "The relationship of training milestones with racing success in a population of Standardbred horses in New Zealand," New Zealand Veterinary Journal, Vol 59, Issue 6, 2011, pp. 323-327.

Cheetham J., et al., “Relationships between race earnings and horse age, sex, gait, track surface and number of race starts for Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses in North America,” Equine Veterinary Journal, 42, 2010: 346–350.

Camillo Pieramati, et al., “Assessment of limits for racing speed in the Italian trotter population,” Italian Journal of Animal Science 2011; 233-266.
“…more than a century will pass before the performance of the horses reaches its plateau.”

 Chris W. Rogers, et al., “Proactive Management of the Equine Athlete,” Animals 2012, 2, 640-655.
“... effect of earlier introduction of the horse to the training and stimuli required for racing.”

Transportation of horses:
Padalino, B., et al (2016), Survey of horse transportation in Australia: issues and practices. Australian Veterinay Journal, 94: 349–357.
Alessandra Tateo, et al, “ Transport stress in horses,” Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Vol 7:133-42, 2012.

Racing, track & tack:

Victoria M. Howard, Freddie Hudson and Billy Haughton, Roosevelt Raceway Where It All Began, 2014.
M.L. Peterson, C. Wayne McIlwraith, Raoul F. Reiser II, “Development of a system for the in-situ characterisation of thoroughbred horse racing track surfaces,” Biosystems Engineering, Vol 101: 2, 2008: 260–269.

Nicholas C. Noble, "Analysis Modeling and Optimization of a Smart Sulky," mim thesis, University of Maine, 2012.

BW Ross, G Helzerman, L Carlson, T Ross, “Sulky with adjustable wheel positions,” US Patent 8,408,563, 2013.

Allan Alkes & Eric Koenig, “Lifting girdle appatus for enhancing the performance of a harness racing horse,” US Patent 8,429,883, 2013.

Gambling and Society:

Jacqueline Wilks, "Gambling in the American States: Why some states are more permissive than others," Thesis for Master of Public Administration. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, August 2004.
Ongoing research of gambling in Europe, sign up for mail.

Gordon D. Atlas and Christopher Peterson, "Explanatory Style and Gambling: How Pessimists React to Losing Wagers," Behav. Res. Ther. Vol. 28, No. 6. pp. 523-529. 1990. They ruminate about past races instead of focusing on upcoming races...and go on to lose again...

Phil McManus & Raewyn Graham, "Horse racing and gambling: comparing attitudes and preferences of racetrack patrons and residents of Sydney, Australia," Leisure Studies, 2012, 1–18.

Gambling, Internet & Law:
Keith C. Miller, “Public policy and the inevitability of internet gambling,” mimeo., 2012.

Henrik Jordahl, “Sweden’s Digital Growth Industry,” Report, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, 2011.

D. Halcoussis & A. Lowenberg, "All In: An Empirical Analysis of  Legislative Voting on Internet Gambling Restrictions in The United States." Contemporary Economic Policy. doi: 10.1111/coep.12054 (2014).

Gambling as science:
Robert P. Schumaker, "Using SVM Regression to Predict Harness Races: A One Year Study of Northfield Park," mimeo: Computer and Information Sciences Department, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, no year.

Kacapyr, Elia, “The efficiency of pari-mutuel betting in standardbred racing,” The Journal of Prediction Markets, Vol 5, No 1, 2011: 1-11

Robert P. Schumaker, ”Machine Learning the Harness Track: Crowdsourcing and Varying Race History,” mimeo: Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, CT, no year. ""0Harness%20Track%20-%20Crowdsourcing%20and%20Varying%20Race%20History.pdf

Joseph Edward Brierly, Bet To Win At The Harness Races (CreateSpace, Pb, 2012).

Bob Marks, “Golden Rules,” Hoof Beats, May, 2012. ""&HYPERLINK ""zoneid=13

 L.V. Williams & D. Siegel (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Gambling (Oxford: OUP, 2014).

Gramm, M., McKinney, C.N. and Owens, D.H., “The efficiency of exotic wagers in racetrack betting,” in Peel, D., (ed.), Economics of Betting Markets (London: Routledge, 2013).

Gambling as organized interest:

Funding and managing racetracks:

James Santomier, John Gerlach, (2012) "Public policy and funding New York's new sports venues", Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 2: 3, 241–262.

T.D. Thornton, Not By a Long Shot: A Season at a Hard Luck Horse Track (New York: Public Affairs, 2008). Thoroughbred racing, relevant for harness as well.

The horse as celebrity:
Charles Leerhsen, Crazy Good. The True Story of Dan Patch, the Most Famous Horse in America (New York, 2008).

Sharon B. Smith, The Best There Ever Was. Dan Patch and the Dawn of the American Century (Skyhorse Publishing, 2012). Dan Patch was a pacer.

The horse as source of healing:
Patricia Cody, Lori Holleran Steiker, Mary Lynn Szymandera,“Healing Through Horses,” Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, Vol. 11: 2, 2011.

Trotters on film:
http://vimeHYPERLINK ""

Danish legend Tarok stars in drama (2013), eventually available as DVD at a theater near you.

Edward Ball, The Inventor and the Tycoon: The Murderer Eadweard Muybridge, the Entrepreneur Leland Stanford, and the Birth of Moving Pictures (2013).

Archives of race results:
Chronicles of Group/Listed race in past 150 years.
Similar to previous.

Trotting federations, official and semi-official websites: " 

Individual horses, find:
Austria, “Pferdeübersicht”:


Denmark, "Navn på hest":

Finland, "Hevonen“:


Germany, "Trabersuche“:


Italy, "ricerca generica“:

The Netherlands:




Slovak, Czech and Polish trotting:

Slovenia: ""&HYPERLINK ""kategorija=konji




In Swedish:
Ethnology (doct diss on life and work in racing stable):

Sara Berglund, Vägen till vinnarcirkeln (Stockholm: Gidlunds, 2006).

History (acad anthology, mix of topics):

M Greiff & S Hedenborg (red.), I sulky och sadel (Stockholm: Carlssons, 2007).

In German:

Winners of Derby-races across Europe, 2013: pedigree highlights.

Ethnology (acad anthology on life at racing track):
Ina Dietzsch (Hrsg.), Vergnügen in der Krise. Der Berliner Trabrennsport zwischen Alltag und Event (Panama Verlag, 2010).

Arguably the first modern analysis of horse racing:
Graf Stephan Széchenyi, Über Pferde, Pferdezucht und Pferderennen. (Übersetzt von Joseph Vojdisek. Leipzig und Pesth 1830. Reprint: Hildesheim 1979.)

Website for the Feinschmeckers of breeding and pedigrees:

German newsletter on the industry, of general interest scope:

In Danish:
Madsen, C.B., Nielsen, L.B., Petersen, C.H., Analyse af hestesektorens samfundsoekonomiske betydning i Danmark (in Danish), vol. 1. Dansk Landbrugsraadgivning, Landscentret Heste, Aarhus, 2009.

In French:
Sophie Cueille, "Le cheval de course en Île-de-France, une présence architecturale et paysagère," In Situ [En ligne], 18 | 2012, mis en ligne le 31 juillet 2012, consulté le 09 décembre 2013. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/insitu.9685

Vial, C.; Aubert, M.; Perrier-Cornet, P.,” Les choix organisationnels des propriétaires de chevaux de loisir dans les espaces ruraux,” Économie Rurale, 2011 No. 321: 42-57. Go to: Enter: Trotteur Fr

Last update: December 10, 2016

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